Cats were also frequently tortured and killed. It's gruesome, but of special interest for its insight into a typesetting shop of the period. To make matters worse, the owners did little work while the workers did work all day. While the bourgeois fumed over the loss of work, his wife, less obtuse, virtually told him that the workers attacked her sexually and would like to murder him” (99). For example, the bourgeois often kept cats, sometimes leading to workers’ hate for them. There was none of that during preindustrial Europe, as shown in the case of the printing shops. In the statement made by Darnton, he reminds us of the cultural gap between present day and eighteenth century France, a place where the massacre of cats was repeated time after time to get across a point that otherwise could not be felt. When cats are mentioned now days, many people think of nice, furry animals that like to sit on your lap. It was believed that cats were witches in disguise and were capable of sorcery. Our inability to understand why cat massacres were so funny to 17th and 18th century peasants is one way that we cannot understand the culture of that time period. And yet the idea of torturing killing thousands of cats is a horrifying one to the modern person, which prevents us from understanding what it was that could make a situation acceptable and even funny back then. Worst of all, a master would give cats a higher status than his workers. Our culture is very different from the pre industrial European culture, and we don’t think the same way. In addition, the sleeping quarters of the workers are small, cold, and cramped. In some cases cats were thought to help men get a wife, and help women bear children. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Because of this, those of the 21st century are unable to understand the so called “joke” of the Great Cat Massacre. In the printing trade there was enormous tension between the employer ( the masters) and the worker (the apprentices and journeymen). The only way for a worker to become a shop owner was to marry a widow of the shop owner. They believed that if one were to injure a cat in any way, the next morning a woman with injuries in the same area as the cat is a witch. Boston Massacre. Cats were one of the most mysterious animals. Cats also represented sex, relationships, fertility, and cuckolds. Darnton claims that “the killing of the cats expressed a hatred for the bourgeois that had spread among all the workers, (78)” showing the class conflict between the two. The master’s wife was also cheating on her husband. Cats cause a class problem between the workers and the bourgeois or the masters. (pp. 77-78) We can’t understand why cat massacres are so funny because, in the 21st century, animal abuse is seen as cruel. cats represented more than just furry house pets. When Darnton mentions our inability to get the joke of the cat massacre, he is referring to how the joke has to do with the meaning behind cats. Although most people hated cats, the higher class people tended to treat their cats better than their servants. In the eighteenth century, it was different. The second section, which is titled “Workers Revolt: The great Cat Massacre of the Rue Saint-Sérverin” brings the reader directly into the views of the working class during the 1700s in France. The working class was not treated well by the bourgeoisie, and “the killing of cats expressed a hatred for the bourgeois (79).” Peasants created many stories in which the rich or powerful man tricked the poor man, because that’s what happened to peasants in real life. For example, Darnton explains how the Parisians enjoyed “to incinerate cats by the sackful” (p. 83). There were many conflicts of the classes in the book. They were also thought to be useful to turn “to your advantage if you followed the right procedures” (94). Cats were also associated with witches and the devil, but were also seen as a source of remedies and healing power when they were maimed, tortured, or killed. Their masters only occasionally show up at the workshop and when they do, it is to yell at the workers or fire them. Workers despised cats, peasants used cats to their advantage (although at times they feared them), and higher class citizens prioritized them. The difference between the treatments of cats makes it obvious that there was tension between the working class and the bourgeoisie. There was plenty of reasoning behind these grotesque, inhumane killings; not only were the cats the masters’ wive’s most prized possesion, they were associated with witchcraft. I think Emma made a good point about the “overarching theme of Darnton’s book” and I would agree that there are various contrasts in the customs and traditions across cultures. The cats were favored and were given meals with the master while workers were thrown scraps and rotten meat. But in the eighteenth century, when science and myth were barely distinguishable compared to today, superstitions and witchcraft seemed logical to associate with perhaps seeming suspicious and intelligent animals. The masters of these shops treated their cats so much better than the workers. Darnton’s main reason for even presenting and describing the background of the incident in the first place is to provide an example of an incident and conflict that was a result of a different mind and ideology that existed in the common people during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Cats can also be a charm for a man as long as it is cherished, it can bring prosperity with women. This can best be described a tour of Darton’s mind and thoughts with no particular bias. Even though “the killing of the cats expressed a hatred for the bourgeois that spread among all the workers” (79), the apprentices were the most exploited of them all. In this predicament is where real hatred and contempt arises because the poor cannot better there situation and have to stand idle while their contemporaries bask in luxuries. In Robert Darnton’s The Great Cat Massacre, he demonstrates the different symbols attributed to cats that vary amongst the classes. Another issue that shows the class division is when the workers attempt to slaughter the wife of the master’s cat. The upper class not only had the time and money to take care of their cats, they loved them and treasured them more than even their workers. In the printing trade, a passion for cats among masters was abundant, however, for the workers, they were a nuisance for their howls during the night. One night, they had finally had enough. Cats also were associated with witches and witchcraft. Lastly, cats were the subject of many superstitions, for example, workers believed “if buried alive in Bearn, they could clear a field of weeds” and that eating certain parts of a cat could cure ailments. Cats are “associated with the taboo (89)” in some cultures, and in France, to cross a cat at night was to “risk running into the devil (92).” Furthermore, witches had an important role in the superstition of cats as they “transformed themselves into cats in order to cast spells on their victims (92).” Peasants beat cats at night and found that the next day “Bruises had appeared on women believed to be witches (94),” suggesting a strong bond between cat and witch. Cat symbolized a great deal and teach us a lot about life and customs in sixteenth century France. Peasants were jealous of their masters and angry that they were exploited so much. The masters’ cats were treated better and ate better than the workers, which led to the hatred of them. In conclusion, because people today are exploited far less by their superiors and hold far less drastic superstitions that connect cats and witchcraft, workers express their resentment towards their bosses in different ways, which is why the older ways seem less amusing. This was the only way believed to break the cats’ powers. In order to personalize this “orgy of killing,” the workers targeted the bourgeois’ wife’s favorite cat. Below the journeymen, there was the á lour (for hire) which were the unqualified “source of cheap labor” (Darnton 80). It is interesting how it is not funny now because people’s lives have changed, cultures are different. Class conflict in this article is between the apprentices and masters. This “peace” soon spread thin and the journeymen, being just slightly more advanced workers, started being excluded from the masterships. Because we are unable to understand the joke of killing cats it shows how over time morals and views are changed over time. After the killing of twenty five cats in the household of the rue Saint-Séverin, the torturing and murdering of cats became a source of entertainment for the poor. In the 18th century, the masters’ love of cats and the workers’ hatred of them make the killing of them funny and satisfying to the workers. First is the conflict between the journeymen and the cats. They rarely secured a good nights sleep owing to the wife’s cats howling all night. According to Darnton, by killing the master’s cats, the workers at the printing shop were attacking their bosses in a more symbolic way. Since a couple of bourgeois now held a monopoly over the printing trade, there was a smaller quantity of shops that continuously employed “underqualified printers, who had not undergone their apprenticeship that made a journeyman eligible, in principle to advance to a mastership. This will always be the case, we will almost never have the same thoughts and superstitions as people of the past. This horrible treatment led the apprentices to rise up against their masters, to criticize the bourgeoisie as a whole, and the entire hierarchy of society. In Darnton’s statement, “Our own inability to get the joke is an indication of the distance that separates us from the workers of preindustrial Europe” (77-78), means that the social hierarchy has changed so much from that time that workers today have far less resentment towards their masters and therefore go to less dramatic ways to show their concern. Cats had different meanings to them. There was supposedly only one way to keep yourself safe from the evil of cats–torture them. The working class people associated cats with sex, violence, witchcraft, and evil. They were seen as major symbols of witchcraft; cats were identified as the agents of witches and the devil, and not just black cats. Therefore, the cat massacre represents the greatest class conflict in this essay. Then again it could also allude to the distance of the lower to middle class in socio-economic terms, in addition to life. Finally, cats were a symbol for sexuality, often representing “fertility and female sexuality everywhere” (95). The Great Cat Massacre is a book that has a very unusual title, considering the fact that it is a book that discusses the history of cultural French stories and history. The Great Cat Massacre A History of Britain in 100 Mistakes. Darnton presents the incident as the basis for the essay on explaining the societal beliefs and conflicts of the time. Now people can’t understand the joke because they didn’t live through the Old Regime. If the Indians refused the new forced religion, the English Puritans were prepared to fight a war. The porter, a curious chap, asked the regiment of soldiers where they were from. The fact that the masters valued their cats over their workers is not only humiliating for the workers, but also dehumanizing. The workers were treated very poorly; even the masters’ cats were cared for better. Pregnancy, in fact, could be caused by eating a cat. First Edition. The class conflict lies between the lower class and the middle class, better known as the bourgeoisie, but the greatest conflict lies within the actual treatment of the workers. These thoughts are similar to those of bourgeois which in turn were so different from the thoughts of the workers in Europe. It is most prominent and is highlighted the most in the description of the roles and treatment of the apprentices and journeymen in the shops and printing houses during the time period. The Great Cat Massacre consists of the analysis of six cultural artefacts, all from eighteenth-century France, layered by social group of origin and level of sophistication. The medieval era would consider the cat superstitious and evil, but in the modern era they are considered as domestic cuddly creatures. The Great Cat Massacre: And Other Episodes in French Cultural History (Penguin History) [Darnton, Robert] on Amazon.com. Darnton is showing how far people have come as a society since pre-industrialized Europe. To the upper class, cats were both companions and representatives. The greatest class conflict pitted the workforce against their master, a struggle that never really went away. It was often thought that witches transformed into cats to cast spells of their victims, and in order to protect oneself from nearby sorcery, one must maim a cat. For those rich and wealthy enough to own pets, cats served as practical family members, eating at the table and being treated better than the workers themselves ; “keeping pets was as alien to the workers as torturing animals was to the bourgeois”(100). We view cats more the way the upper class did, like they are pets and should be treated kindly. In The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes in French Cultural History, Robert Darnton again displays the estimable gifts that have earned him a place among the finest practitioners of the historian's craft. collection which Darnton has so successfully mined over the years. Cats were thought to have power over sexual relations. I think another possible theme for the book is how people through history have tried to grasp a better understanding of their life, whether it be through folktales which peasants used to gain advice on how to cope with the daily difficulties they faced, or the workers of the workers revolt, who took it into their own hands to rebel against the authority that made their lives miserable. (Darnton Pg. Darnton then goes on to explain the origins of the practice and the original motives behind these festivities. To those living in 18th century Europe events and ideas associated with the cat massacre were not uncommon. Free shipping for many products! The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes in French Cultural History by Robert Darnton (New York: Basic Books, 1984). However, cats had specific meanings within the French culture. This gave all the more reason to take out their frustration on these defenseless creatures who were killed often as an experiment. Because of this, men were fired and hired all the time because the owners knew they could receive new workers whenever it was needed; making it so that the work force was different every week. At carnivals, people no longer decide to rip cats to shreds or watch them smolder in flames because witchcraft and now-strange superstitions are no longer so prominent in society. There were many superstitions about cats. They were raised on a pedestal where the poor worked hard and received very little. Although today we see cats as adorable house pets and affectionate, loving creatures, they were not viewed that way by the workers in France in the eighteenth century. We don’t think it is funny or amusing. They represented the injustice the workers felt toward their masters or the bourgeois, who treated the apprentices “… like animals while the animals were promoted over their heads to the position the boys should have occupied, the place at the master’s table” (79). The Great Cat Massacre consists of the analysis of six cultural artefacts, all from eighteenth-century France, layered by social group of origin and level of sophistication. It was even believed that one could become invisible by eating a warm cat brain. In preindustrial Europe, the workers found in funny to kill off their master’s cats because to them, that symbolized them killing off their masters. The essay emphasizes how the cat massacre was funny to the workers because of the cultural symbolism and meaning they saw behind the animal. When Robert Darnton says “Our own inability to get the joke is an indication of the distance that separates us from the workers of preindustrial Europe.” he is saying how our society now a days views the slaughter of cats. Cats were the familiars of witches, or even witches or the devil in disguise. The major problem with the class struggle, which represents the greatest conflict, is that when a child is born he has no hope to become anything better than his father. The injustice is reinforced by Darnton as he mentions again how the apprentices “were treated like animals while the animals were promoted over their heads to the positions the boys should have occupied, the place at the masters’ table” (79). Cats were thought to be the devil, a devil’s servant, or witches. Life as an apprentice was hard, he explained. Things that the workers learned are very different from the things people now learn, such as the superstitions about the cats. As Robert Darnton states, the workers “Dumped sackloads of half-dead cats in the courtyard, (76)” “Strung them up on improvised gallows, (77)” and killed them. Even though the master should have been angry, he was the person who ordered the workers to kill the cats, so he was the laughingstock of the workers because the master essentially brought this down on himself. Cats were even thought to help fertility. Yet, in today’s society with five star restaurants, cafes, hotels, sleeping machines, bubble baths, and other such luxuries, we cannot understand how a boss or master would offer their workers the scraps of a meal. This story shows the growing animosity of the workers towards their masters and shows their feelings of being treated unjustly. This event was the source of the workers’ amusement, and left them “delirious with ‘joy’, ‘disorder’, and ‘laughter’” (77). People deal with their problems in much calmer ways, but back then, killing a cat sent a strong message that was common to use. ( Log Out / To people of eighteenth century France, killing this animal was symbolic of killing the master himself. ” A passion for cats seemed to have swept through the printing trade, at least at the level of the masters (76).” In the context of this essay the cat symbolizes all of the above in reference to the masters. Cats were often associated with fertility and prosperity in women thus making them widely considered to be a sexual symbol. Likewise, the killing of la grise, the favorite cat of the mistress, was considered an indirect sexual assault towards her. Back then, people would laugh at the killing of cats, but today, we find killing innocent animals cruel and immoral. A classic of European history, it is an essential starting point for understanding Enlightenment France. People of today (at least not psychopaths) do not go around killing cats and do not laugh when cats are hung in an improvised gallows. In this case, it was of the French people in the decades before the French Revolution. Cats also provided a source of amusement for people. In this chapter, class conflict is present between the masters and the workers. The differences and modernization of today’s world means that we will never be able to understand and relate to people of the past nor understand the things they did and why. Great Cat Massacre. No matter how hard the apprentices worked, they would not become a master unless were related to the master or they married a master’s widow. But they were also often killed because of they were thought to be associated with evil and witchcraft. Additionally, the conflict is visible from the workers murder of the cat belonging to the master’s wife – the act can be recognized as a from of denouncing her as a witch, as it was her favorite cat they killed, the one that she was most familiar with, or, as the workers would say, an actual familiar. When Darnton says “Our own inability to get the joke is an indication of the distance that separates us from the workers of preindustrial Europe”(77-78) he is talking about the distance between the cultural views and mindsets of people from the twenty-first century in comparison to those of people in the eighteenth century that prevents people of today from understanding their humor. For the middle class bourgeois, a cat was a luxury that was treated like a queen. Journeymen and masters. But until we shorten the distance between the people today and preindustrial workers, the great cat massacre will still remain an unamusing, gruesome event. For example: food that was so grossest that it was refused by the cats was fed to the apprentices. Then in finality, to discuss that is the quote “Our own inability to get the joke is an indication of the distance that separates us from the workers of preindustrial Europe”. The alloues were merely a source of cheap labor…in their inferior status…They personified the tendency of labor to become a commodity instead of a partnership” (80). In chapter 2 of The Great Cat Massacre, Robert Danton talks about how cats held a different significance to each of the different social classes. As previously stated absolutism although effective, to an extent, also possesses its flaws of “religious” gerrymandering and hypocrisy, Poe’s focus of the cat’s eye in The Black Cat was to show the insanity of the husband. In order to get rid of the evil spirits, men would try to burn the cat, take off its fur, or shoot the cats to attempt to get rid of the evil. Another significance of the cat was their assimilation with witches and dark magic. They awoke before dawn and worked feverishly all day for little to no pay. In The Great Cat and Dog Massacre, Hilda Kean unearths the history, piecing together the compelling story of the life—and death—of Britain’s wartime animal companions. Today, the lovable, furry creatures represent nothing more than a friend or pet. Cats were thought to bring bad luck; Robert Darnton explains, “they could prevent bread from rising…spoil the catch if they crossed the path of a fisherman…if buried alive in Bearn, they could clear a field of weeds.” (Darnton 94) People thought that cats had all these abilities because they were witches or the devil in disguise. They felt no remorse for killing them, but rather excited at the idea of insulting the master and mistress through symbolic ways. Where and how do you see class conflict in this article? It was believed that “if a man loved cats, he would love women; and vice versa.” Cats also represented fertility and female sexuality for centuries. The 18th century was a dangerous, cruel, unfair time, shrouded in superstition. However, cats are not just significant in practical terms – they are associated with much and more, primarily witchcraft. Darnton hopes that after understanding the meaning of the joke as the workers once did, will help the reader to unravel the unusual culture of the Old Regime. The upper class people worshiped their cats and treated them much better than their workers. The way people express themselves and the things they believe have evolved over time. Darnton is trying to explain that because we cannot imagine have the same vicious thoughts towards cats as the apprentices did, we do no have the ability to understand the lives, and thoughts of the workers of preindustrial Europe. Many believed that cats could cure a sickness or heal a broken bone if killed or tortured, but were connected with witches, were witches, or became the devil somehow. By killing ceremonially killing cats in the great massacre, “they [the working class] condemned the house and declared the bourgeois guilty,” (Darnton, 97). This tragic event in the history of France continues to fascinate American historians and actors today. There was “disparity between the lot of workers and the bourgeois—a matter of the basic elements in life: work, food, and sleep. In addition to being an evil spirit and having healing powers, the cats were also a symbol of fertility. Second is the problem with under-qualified printers. If one were to kill a cat, it was as if they were harming a witch because cats were thought of as witches. Mixing wine with various cat body-parts was a common remedy for folk medicine. In chapter three you jump into the world of the Bourgeois in Montepellier. 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